SOAP Web Service
The SOAP Web Services provided by ServiceNow are WS-I compliant, as outlined in the WS-I Basic Profile 1.0.
2 Concepts and Terminology
- Provider - publishes web service for clients to invoke (consume)
- Consumer - invokes / consumes published web service
- Web Service Description Language
- XML document describing functions, arguments, data schema, and endpoint (where / how to invoke the service, URL)
- WSDL only necessary when generating SOAP envelope programmatically
- Simple Object Access Protocol
- XML document usually HTTP posted to web service endpoint described in WSDL
- SOAP:Envelope / SOAP:Header / SOAP:Body
- Hyper-Text Transfer Protocol
- POST vs GET - Web Service is POSTed
- XML vs. Form POST - Web Service is XML
2.1 Web Service Provider
ServiceNow publishes its underlying table structures and associated data with the following Web Service methods:
- Direct Web Services: Use a URL query to request a ServiceNow table's WSDL.
- Web Service Import Sets: Use import tables and transform maps to automate Web Service requests to ServiceNow tables.
|Note: SOAP messages are sent with the assumption that the recipient is XML compliant. No encoding is applied to the SOAP message.|
2.2 Web Service Consumer
All ServiceNow tables and import sets dynamically generate WSDL XML documents that describe its table schema and available operations. You can get a WSDL format by issuing a URL targeting a ServiceNow table with the WSDL parameter, for example:
All dynamically generated and served ServiceNow WSDL accessible via HTTP is available for use under the terms defined in the Open Source Initiative OSI - Apache License, Version 2.0 license agreement.
|OSI - Apache License, Version 2.0|
Apache License, Version 2.0 Apache License Version 2.0, January 2004 http://www.apache.org/licenses/ TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR USE, REPRODUCTION, AND DISTRIBUTION 1. Definitions. "License" shall mean the terms and conditions for use, reproduction, and distribution as defined by Sections 1 through 9 of this document. "Licensor" shall mean the copyright owner or entity authorized by the copyright owner that is granting the License. "Legal Entity" shall mean the union of the acting entity and all other entities that control, are controlled by, or are under common control with that entity. For the purposes of this definition, "control" means (i) the power, direct or indirect, to cause the direction or management of such entity, whether by contract or otherwise, or (ii) ownership of fifty percent (50%) or more of the outstanding shares, or (iii) beneficial ownership of such entity. "You" (or "Your") shall mean an individual or Legal Entity exercising permissions granted by this License. "Source" form shall mean the preferred form for making modifications, including but not limited to software source code, documentation source, and configuration files. "Object" form shall mean any form resulting from mechanical transformation or translation of a Source form, including but not limited to compiled object code, generated documentation, and conversions to other media types. "Work" shall mean the work of authorship, whether in Source or Object form, made available under the License, as indicated by a copyright notice that is included in or attached to the work (an example is provided in the Appendix below). "Derivative Works" shall mean any work, whether in Source or Object form, that is based on (or derived from) the Work and for which the editorial revisions, annotations, elaborations, or other modifications represent, as a whole, an original work of authorship. For the purposes of this License, Derivative Works shall not include works that remain separable from, or merely link (or bind by name) to the interfaces of, the Work and Derivative Works thereof. "Contribution" shall mean any work of authorship, including the original version of the Work and any modifications or additions to that Work or Derivative Works thereof, that is intentionally submitted to Licensor for inclusion in the Work by the copyright owner or by an individual or Legal Entity authorized to submit on behalf of the copyright owner. For the purposes of this definition, "submitted" means any form of electronic, verbal, or written communication sent to the Licensor or its representatives, including but not limited to communication on electronic mailing lists, source code control systems, and issue tracking systems that are managed by, or on behalf of, the Licensor for the purpose of discussing and improving the Work, but excluding communication that is conspicuously marked or otherwise designated in writing by the copyright owner as "Not a Contribution." "Contributor" shall mean Licensor and any individual or Legal Entity on behalf of whom a Contribution has been received by Licensor and subsequently incorporated within the Work. 2. Grant of Copyright License. Subject to the terms and conditions of this License, each Contributor hereby grants to You a perpetual, worldwide, non-exclusive, no-charge, royalty-free, irrevocable copyright license to reproduce, prepare Derivative Works of, publicly display, publicly perform, sublicense, and distribute the Work and such Derivative Works in Source or Object form. 3. Grant of Patent License. Subject to the terms and conditions of this License, each Contributor hereby grants to You a perpetual, worldwide, non-exclusive, no-charge, royalty-free, irrevocable (except as stated in this section) patent license to make, have made, use, offer to sell, sell, import, and otherwise transfer the Work, where such license applies only to those patent claims licensable by such Contributor that are necessarily infringed by their Contribution(s) alone or by combination of their Contribution(s) with the Work to which such Contribution(s) was submitted. If You institute patent litigation against any entity (including a cross-claim or counterclaim in a lawsuit) alleging that the Work or a Contribution incorporated within the Work constitutes direct or contributory patent infringement, then any patent licenses granted to You under this License for that Work shall terminate as of the date such litigation is filed. 4. Redistribution. You may reproduce and distribute copies of the Work or Derivative Works thereof in any medium, with or without modifications, and in Source or Object form, provided that You meet the following conditions: 1. You must give any other recipients of the Work or Derivative Works a copy of this License; and 2. You must cause any modified files to carry prominent notices stating that You changed the files; and 3. You must retain, in the Source form of any Derivative Works that You distribute, all copyright, patent, trademark, and attribution notices from the Source form of the Work, excluding those notices that do not pertain to any part of the Derivative Works; and 4. If the Work includes a "NOTICE" text file as part of its distribution, then any Derivative Works that You distribute must include a readable copy of the attribution notices contained within such NOTICE file, excluding those notices that do not pertain to any part of the Derivative Works, in at least one of the following places: within a NOTICE text file distributed as part of the Derivative Works; within the Source form or documentation, if provided along with the Derivative Works; or, within a display generated by the Derivative Works, if and wherever such third-party notices normally appear. The contents of the NOTICE file are for informational purposes only and do not modify the License. You may add Your own attribution notices within Derivative Works that You distribute, alongside or as an addendum to the NOTICE text from the Work, provided that such additional attribution notices cannot be construed as modifying the License. You may add Your own copyright statement to Your modifications and may provide additional or different license terms and conditions for use, reproduction, or distribution of Your modifications, or for any such Derivative Works as a whole, provided Your use, reproduction, and distribution of the Work otherwise complies with the conditions stated in this License. 5. Submission of Contributions. Unless You explicitly state otherwise, any Contribution intentionally submitted for inclusion in the Work by You to the Licensor shall be under the terms and conditions of this License, without any additional terms or conditions. Notwithstanding the above, nothing herein shall supersede or modify the terms of any separate license agreement you may have executed with Licensor regarding such Contributions. 6. Trademarks. This License does not grant permission to use the trade names, trademarks, service marks, or product names of the Licensor, except as required for reasonable and customary use in describing the origin of the Work and reproducing the content of the NOTICE file. 7. Disclaimer of Warranty. Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, Licensor provides the Work (and each Contributor provides its Contributions) on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied, including, without limitation, any warranties or conditions of TITLE, NON-INFRINGEMENT, MERCHANTABILITY, or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. You are solely responsible for determining the appropriateness of using or redistributing the Work and assume any risks associated with Your exercise of permissions under this License. 8. Limitation of Liability. In no event and under no legal theory, whether in tort (including negligence), contract, or otherwise, unless required by applicable law (such as deliberate and grossly negligent acts) or agreed to in writing, shall any Contributor be liable to You for damages, including any direct, indirect, special, incidental, or consequential damages of any character arising as a result of this License or out of the use or inability to use the Work (including but not limited to damages for loss of goodwill, work stoppage, computer failure or malfunction, or any and all other commercial damages or losses), even if such Contributor has been advised of the possibility of such damages. 9. Accepting Warranty or Additional Liability. While redistributing the Work or Derivative Works thereof, You may choose to offer, and charge a fee for, acceptance of support, warranty, indemnity, or other liability obligations and/or rights consistent with this License. However, in accepting such obligations, You may act only on Your own behalf and on Your sole responsibility, not on behalf of any other Contributor, and only if You agree to indemnify, defend, and hold each Contributor harmless for any liability incurred by, or claims asserted against, such Contributor by reason of your accepting any such warranty or additional liability.
4 Direct Web Services
A direct web service is available for any table in the system provided the correct access control is setup. The supported format of the incoming message is document style literal XML SOAP documents (Document/Literal). To retrieve the direct web service WSDL description and XML schema, point to the relative URL of <tablename>.do?WSDL. For example, to retrieve the WSDL for the Incident table on the online demo system, use the following URL:
- https://<instance name>.service-now.com/incident.do?WSDL
5 Web Service Import Sets
Web Service Import Sets compliment Direct Web Services and Scripted Web Services to provide a web service interface to Import Sets tables. This type of web service will transform the incoming data synchronously based on the associated Transform Maps by default.
6 SOAP Roles
To use SOAP web services, you must have the appropriate role for the operation you want to perform. Additionally, you must have any other roles required to access the target tables.
|soap||Can perform all SOAP operations.|
|soap_create||Can insert new records.|
|soap_delete||Can delete existing records.|
|soap_ecc||Can query, insert, and delete records on the Queues [ecc_queue] table.|
|soap_query||Can query record information.|
|soap_query_update||Can query record information and update records.|
|soap_script||Can run scripts that specify a .do endpoint. This role is required for running Scripted Web Services.|
|soap_update||Can update records.|
7 Overriding the SOAP Endpoint
The SOAP End-point address (where the SOAP message is posted) is consistent with the endpoint of the WSDL. In some cases, however, the WSDL may reference an incorrect endpoint URL. If this happens, it is necessary to over-ride the generated URL by creating the property com.glide.soap_address_base_url to contain the new URL. You may have to add the property manually as this is not an out-of-box property.
For instance, a generated SOAP Endpoint may look like this:
You can specify a property to define the endpoint such that it goes through a proxy by setting the property:
com.glide.soap_address_base_url = "https://myproxy.mycompany.com/service-now/"
This will result in the endpoint being generated to appear as:
8 Enabling HTTP Compression
By default, the SOAP request is accepted un-compressed and the result of the request is returned un-compressed. To enable HTTP compression using [gzip] when sending in your SOAP request, set the following HTTP header:
To receive the SOAP response compressed using [gzip] send in your SOAP request with the following HTTP header:
9 Debugging Incoming SOAP Envelope
To capture incoming SOAP envelope XML in the system log, add the property glide.processor.debug.SOAPProcessor with a value of true.
When enabled, this property adds the incoming SOAP envelope in the Message field of the system log. Disable this debugging feature as soon as you are finished so that the log is not overwhelmed with excessive and unnecessary debugging information.
10 Preventing Empty Elements in SOAP Messages
By default, ServiceNow does not omit empty elements, elements with NULL or NIL values, from SOAP messages.
To prevent SOAP responses from containing empty elements, an administrator can create a system property called glide.soap.omit_null_values and set the value to true. This behavior is compliant with the WSDL as all elements in a SOAP message have a minOccurs=0 attribute and are therefore optional. In addition, this behavior prevents the instance from creating inefficient SOAP messages containing a large number of empty elements.
Set this property to false to allow SOAP messages to search for existing fields with empty values. For example, if an administrator wants to search for incidents with an empty Assigned to field from a SOAP message, then the SOAP message must be able to send an empty value for this field.
|Note: Changing the value of this property may cause unintended actions in existing web service integrations. Administrators are strongly encouraged to carefully test the new behavior to ensure that existing integrations process empty elements as expected.|